Database Languages

Thursday, August 14, 2008 by Ankit Goyal

Database Languages

A DBMS is a software package that carries out many different tasks including the provision of facilities to enable the user to access and modify information in the database. The database is an intermediate link between the physical database, computer and the operating system and the users. To provide the various facilities to different types of users, a DBMS normally provides one or more spe­cialized programming languages called database languages.

Database languages come in different forms. They are: -

1. Data Description Language (DDL)

2. Data Manipulation Language (DML)

Data Description Language (DDL)

As the name suggests, this language is used to define the various types of data in the database and their relationship with each other.

The basic functions performed by DDL are: -

• Create tables, files, databases and data dictionaries.

• Specify the storage structure of each table on disk.

• Integrity constraints on various tables.

• Security and authorization information of each table.

• Specify the structure of each table.

• Overall design of the Database.

Data Manipulation Language (DML)

A language that enables users to access or manipulate data (retrieve, insert, update, delete) as organized by a certain Data Model is called the Data Manipulation Language (DML). It can be of two types: -

1. Procedural DML - It describes what data is needed and how to get it. For example: - Rela­tional Algebra.

2. Non Procedural DML - It describes what data is needed without specifying how to get it. For example: - Relational calculus.

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34 comments:

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Ankush Verma said...

1-WRITE A PROGRAM TO PRINT HELLO WORLD
BEGIN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('HELLO WORLD');
END;
/
2-WRITE A PROGRAM TO PRINT EVEN NUMBERS FROM 1 TO 100
DECLARE
N NUMBER(3) :=0;
BEGIN
WHILE N<=100
LOOP
N :=N+2;
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(N);
END LOOP;
END;
/
3- Write a program to accept a number and print it in reverse order
DECLARE
N NUMBER(5):=&N;
REV NUMBER(5):=0;
R NUMBER(5):=0;
BEGIN
WHILE N !=0
LOOP
R:=MOD(N,10);
REV:=REV*10+R;
N:=TRUNC(N/10);
END LOOP;
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('THE REVERSE OF A GIVEN NUMBER IS '||REV);
END;
/
4- Write a program accept the value of A,B&C display which is greater
DECLARE
A NUMBER(4,2):=&A;
B NUMBER(4,2):=&B;
C NUMBER(4,2):=&C;
BEGIN
IF (A>B AND A>C) THEN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('A IS GREATER '||''||A);
ELSIF B>C THEN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('B IS GREATE '||''||B);
ELSE
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('C IS GREATER '||''||C);
END IF;
END;
/
5- Write a program accept a string and check whether it is palindrome or not
DECLARE
S VARCHAR2(10):='&S';
L VARCHAR2(20);
TEMP VARCHAR2(10);
BEGIN
FOR I IN REVERSE 1..LENGTH(S)
LOOP
L:=SUBSTR(S,I,1);
TEMP:=TEMP||''||L;
END LOOP;
IF TEMP=S THEN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(TEMP ||''||' IS PALINDROME');
ELSE
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(TEMP ||''||' IS NOT PALINDROME');
END IF;
END;
/
6- Wirte a program to calculate area of circle.
create table area3(radius number(5), area number(14,2));
declare
pi constant number(4,2):=3.14;
radius number(5);
area number(14,2);
begin
radius:=3;
while radius<=7
loop
area:=pi*power(radius,2);
insert into area3 values(radius, area);
radius:=radius+1;
end loop;
end;

Kundan Roy said...

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